Iron-based amorphous alloys: The main elements are iron, silicon, boron, carbon, phosphorus, etc. They are characterized by strong magnetic properties (saturated magnetic induction intensity can reach 1.4-1.7T), soft magnetic properties are better than silicon steel sheets, and they are cheap and most suitable for replacing silicon steel sheets. ), such as distribution transformers, intermediate frequency transformers, high-power inductors, reactors, etc. Iron-nickel-based amorphous alloys: mainly composed of iron, nickel, silicon, boron, phosphorus, etc., their magnetic properties are relatively weak (the saturation magnetic induction intensity is about 1T or less), the price is relatively high, but the magnetic permeability is relatively high, which can replace silicon steel sheets Or permalloy, used as a high-demand medium and low frequency transformer core
, such as a leakage switch transformer.
Cobalt-based amorphous alloy: It is composed of cobalt, silicon, boron, etc., and sometimes other elements are added in order to obtain some special properties. Due to the cobalt content, they are very expensive and have weak magnetic properties (the saturation magnetic induction intensity is generally below 1T), However, the magnetic permeability is extremely high, and it is generally used in transformers, inductors, etc. in military power supplies with strict requirements, replacing permalloy and ferrite.
Iron-based nanocrystalline alloys (ultra-microcrystalline alloys): They are composed of iron, silicon, boron and a small amount of copper, molybdenum, niobium, etc., of which copper and niobium are essential elements for obtaining nanocrystalline structures. They are first made into amorphous ribbons and then appropriately annealed to form a mixture of microcrystalline and amorphous structures. Although this material is cheap, it has excellent magnetic properties and is almost comparable to cobalt-based amorphous alloys. It is an ideal material for industrial and civil medium and high frequency transformers, transformers and inductors, and is also a replacement for permalloy and ferrite. .
Advantages of amorphous alloys
High strength and toughness: significantly higher than traditional steel materials, can be used as composite reinforcement materials, such as fishing rods. In foreign countries, bulk amorphous alloys have been applied to golf racquet heads and micro gears. Amorphous alloy wire may be used in structural parts for strengthening. In addition, amorphous alloys have excellent wear resistance, which, combined with their magnetic properties, enables the manufacture of various magnetic heads.
Excellent magnetic properties: Compared with traditional metal magnetic materials, due to the disordered arrangement of atoms in amorphous alloys, there is no crystal anisotropy, and high resistivity, so it has high permeability and low loss, and is an excellent soft magnetic material
. Materials, instead of silicon steel, permalloy and ferrite as transformer cores, transformers, sensors, etc., can greatly improve transformer efficiency, reduce volume, reduce weight, and reduce energy consumption. The magnetic properties of amorphous alloys are actually the most important application areas of amorphous alloys so far. It can be seen from the figure that the amorphous nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy has an ideal combination of high saturation magnetic induction intensity and high magnetic permeability. For details, see Applications of Amorphous Alloys.
Flexible processing technology: Compared with other magnetic materials, amorphous alloys have a wide range of chemical compositions, and even the same material can easily obtain the required magnetic properties through different subsequent processing. Therefore, the magnetic properties of amorphous alloys are very flexible, and the choice is very large, which provides convenience for the selection of power electronic components. Simple manufacturing process, energy saving and environmental protection. Taking traditional thin steel plates as an example, several process links and dozens of procedures are required from steelmaking, casting, ingot blanking, blooming, annealing, hot rolling, annealing, pickling, finishing, and shearing to finished thin plates. Due to many links and complicated processes, traditional iron and steel enterprises are large energy-consuming and polluting households, and are known as 'water tigers' and 'electric tigers'. The manufacturing of amorphous alloys is directly sprayed after steelmaking, and only one step is needed to manufacture the finished thin strips. The process is greatly simplified, saving a lot of valuable energy, and at the same time, there is no pollutant emission, which is very beneficial to environmental protection.
It is precisely because the manufacturing process of amorphous alloys saves energy, and at the same time that its excellent magnetic properties reduce the loss during the use of transformers, it is called green materials and materials of the 21st century.